Q3) [20 Marks] Mineral lube oil production consists of several processes. Describe in details each process? However, liquid minerals, such as oil or gas, may be extracted by pumping. Aluminium is the most abundant. The process of mining from discovery of an ore body through extraction of minerals and finally to returning the land to its natural state consists of several distinct steps. The solution purification and concentration processes may include precipitation, distillation, adsorption, and solvent extraction. The primary methods used to extract minerals from the ground are: Underground miningSurface (open pit) miningPlacer mining The location and shape of the deposit, strength of the rock, ore grade, mining costs, and current market price of the commodity are some of the determining factors for selecting which mining method to use. metal on Earth, but it is expensive, largely because of the amount of electricity used in the extraction process. Remote sensors that use satellite images and geochemical surveys are just two ways that minerals can be located. Insitu leaching is also known as insitu recovery, or solution mining. The mineral extraction process begins with finding the location of mineral deposits. Once the ore is on the surface, the process of getting the mineral you want out of the rock can start. Samples are then sent to an accredited lab, which identifies the type of minerals and grade of gold within them. The final recovery step may involve precipitation, cementation, or an electrometallurgical process. Aluminium ore is called bauxite (Al 2 O 3 ). This is followed by selective flotation to separate bastnaesite and monazite. In deep mines, primary crushing equipment is usually located underground in order to reduce the ore to a manageable size before transportation to the surface. Nickel processing - Nickel processing - Extraction and refining: The extraction of nickel from ore follows much the same route as copper, and indeed, in a number of cases, similar processes and equipment are used. Increasing demand for high grade minerals has compelled miners to carry out more extraction of minerals, which require more energy sources and produce large amount of waste materials. Heap leaching is carried out in the extraction of copper, nickel, uranium and precious metals. Many minerals are then removed through mining or quarrying. Another way we sample is through trenching, which hugs the surface and is carried out by backhoes or bulldozers. These processes are usually carried out in the same sequences, Deasphalting Extraction Dewaxing Finishing. The next step is to get the rocks which contain the mineral out of the ground. In this process, holes are drilled into the ore deposit by explosive or hydraulic fracturing methods. Reverse flotation of iron minerals, an important step in this process, is carried out to produce the final iron concentrate while the cleaner tailings, containing most rare-earth minerals, is processed to obtain a rare-earth concentrate. As crews drill, they mark the exact location and depth of each sample taken. (c) Wastage of upper soil layer and vegetation: Surface mining results in … The first is discovery of the ore body, which is carried out through prospecting or exploration to find and then define the extent, location and value of the ore body. Once the mineral is separated from the rest of the rock, the mineral needs to be cleaned so that it can be used. Tin processing - Tin processing - Mining and concentrating: Vein deposits, such as those in Bolivia and the United Kingdom, usually occur in granite formations and are recovered by conventional underground hard-rock mining techniques. Insitu Leaching. 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